Perfil de suplementação antes e durante a gestação: estudo de acompanhamento na ilha do Faial

Supplementation profile before and during pregnancy: a follow-up study in the Faial island

Frederico Viveiros, Rui Poínhos e Cláudia Afonso

Acta Portuguesa de Nutrição 2021, 26, 06-09 , https://dx.doi.org/10.21011/apn.2021.2602

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Resumo

Introduction: Labelling is an important tool for food and nutrition professionals since it provides information on food safety and nutrition.

Objectives: The aim was to analyse the differences in food and nutrition professionals’ opinions regarding nutrition labelling on prepacked foods.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted, using a non-probabilistic sample of professionals, by contacting several Portuguese entities in food and nutrition. The eligibility criteria included being 18 years old and over, living and working in Portugal, and having a professional activity in this area. An online self-administered survey was developed, including questions about labelling (importance, reading, use, trust, satisfaction, and influence in food choices). The main changes in the European Union labelling rules about the content, presentation and legibility of the mandatory information were analysed. The present paper focuses on the answers to the open-ended question on suggestions to improve nutrition labelling.

Results: From the 297 participants, 33 (11.1%) provided answers to the open-ended question, which were subsequently grouped into six categories. These professionals demonstrated the least satisfaction with the label information namely the specific technical terms, the quantity of information, the symbols used and the nutritional claims. They showed the least agreement with the presentation and content of the nutrition information, implemented by Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011.

Two improvements were proposed: the simplification of the labelling information and the understanding of its usefulness as it is currently presented, to provide perceptible and useful information to the consumer.

Conclusions: Nutrition labelling educational tools should be developed, in order to promote nutrition literacy and lead to consumer’s empowerment.

Na gravidez está recomendada a utilização de suplementos de micronutrimentos para complementar o aporte nutricional. O reduzido número de estudos nacionais, a inexistência de dados regionais e o interesse em tomar conhecimento das práticas realizadas pelos profissionais de saúde da ilha do Faial, motivaram a realização deste estudo. Assim sendo, este estudo teve o objetivo de analisar o perfil de suplementação antes e durante a gravidez de mulheres do Faial.

Este estudo transversal analisou o perfil de suplementação (tipo de suplemento, quando iniciou, quando terminou e quem recomendou) de trinta e quatro mulheres no terceiro trimestre de gestação, através da aplicação de um questionário.

Foram reportadas cinco variedades de suplementos: ácido fólico, iodo, ferro, magnésio e multivitamínico. Todas as gestantes tomaram ácido fólico, mas menos de 30% iniciou a sua toma antes da conceção. Apenas uma grávida não realizou suplementação de iodo e mais de metade da amostra só iniciou esta suplementação no primeiro trimestre. Metade das gestantes fizeram suplementação de ferro, mas apenas 58,8% iniciou a sua toma no segundo trimestre. A maioria da amostra (91,2%) não realizou suplementação de magnésio e foi no último trimestre que mais gestantes iniciaram a sua toma. À semelhança do magnésio, o multivitamínico foi o suplemento menos ingerido pelas grávidas, sendo mencionado apenas por 8,8% da amostra. Metade destas iniciou a sua toma no primeiro trimestre e todas continuaram a tomar no terceiro trimestre.

Os resultados deste estudo reforçam a importância da suplementação, particularmente de ferro, para melhorar a adequação nutricional. Seria fundamental aumentar a adesão das mulheres em idade fértil às consultas de planeamento familiar e garantir que as mesmas são acompanhadas ao longo de toda a gestação, para aumentar o uso da suplementação e melhorar o perfil da sua toma, nomeadamente o início da sua toma, e assim minimizar possíveis complicações.


Abstract



During pregnancy it is recommended to use micronutrient supplements to complement the nutritional intake. The small number of national studies, the lack of regional data and the interest in learning about the practices carried out by health professionals on the island of Faial (Azores Islands, Portugal), motivated the realization of this study. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the supplementation profile before and during pregnancy of women from Faial.


This cross-sectional study analyzed the supplementation profile (type of supplementation, when started, when completed, and who recommended) from thirty four women by applying a questionnaire in the third trimester of pregnancy.


Five varieties of supplements were taken: folic acid, iodine, iron, magnesium and multivitamin. All pregnant women took folic acid, but less than 30% started taking it before conception. Only one pregnant woman did not undergo iodine supplementation and more than half of the sample only started iodine supplementation in the first trimester. Half of the pregnant women received iron supplementation, but only 58.8% started taking it in the second trimester. Most of the sample (91.2%) did not take magnesium supplementation and it was in the last trimester that more pregnant women started taking it. Similar to magnesium, the multivitamin was the supplement least ingested by pregnant women, being mentioned by only 8.8% of the sample. Half of these started taking it in the first trimester and all continued to take it in the third trimester.


The results of this study reinforce the importance of supplementation, particularly iron, to improve nutritional adequacy. It would be crucial to increase the adherence of women on childbearing age to family planning consultations and ensure that they are monitored throughout the pregnancy, to increase the use of supplementation and improve the profile of their intake, especially the beginning of their intake, and thus minimize possible comorbidities.






Palavras-chave: Gestação, Micronutrimento, Pré-conceção, Suplementação